The botanical extraction industry is always changing and evolving. New equipment is constantly in development, processing efficiency is always being tweaked, and new people are consistently joining the industry. Due to these factors, there is a large number of terms or words that are being used on a regular basis amongst industry professionals. The goal of the Evolved Extraction Solutions Industry Jargon Document is to assist those in the botanical extraction industry on certain terms that are used daily. This list will continue to grow and evolve much like the industry Evolved Extraction Solutions is currently apart of.
ACE (ALCOHOL CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR)
An ethanol extraction centrifuge, providing the ability to target botanical compounds with over 97% ethanol recovery.
A colourless, volatile, inflammable liquid. It is also the simplest and smallest ketone. It is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically used for cleaning purposes in laboratories.
Using a recovery pump to pressurize and condense solvent vapour into a solvent tank.
A suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or in another gas.
A chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen. It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminum oxides. It is similar in character to silica as a stationary phase but not nearly as popular.
Pain relief, deadening or absence of a sense of pain without loss of consciousness.
A mixture of two or more liquids that has a constant shared boiling point and composition through distillation. They cannot be separated by distillation regardless of the differences in boiling points between the components.
Hemp specifically falls under a fuel classification that is called biomass. Biomass is a term for the organic matter that can be converted into and used as fuel and is thus considered a potential renewable energy resource.
The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapour.
A form of concentrated cannabis commonly referred to as “hash”. It is exceptionally pure and concentrated, containing high levels of THC. The name is based on how the concentrate bubbles when heated prior to use and the bubble bags that are commonly used to sift the cannabis plant material from its potent purified trichomes.
A cylindrical porcelain filtering funnel (glass and plastic) that has a perforated plate on which the flat filter plater is placed. A vacuum in the flask underneath the filter allows atmospheric pressure on the sample to force the liquid through the filter paper.
An organic compound that is an alkane with 4 carbon atoms. Butane is a gas at STP. The term may refer to either two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane, or a mixture.
A marijuana concentrate that is similar to wax but softer and more pliable. Budder is a type of hash oil that can contain 70%+ THC and must be dabbed using an oil rig.
C1D1 (CLASS 1, DIVISION 1)
A location where ignitable concentrations of inﬂammable gases or vapours may exist under normal operating conditions (or because of repair, maintenance or a leak).
C1D2 (CLASS 1, DIVISION 2)
A location where volatile and inﬂammable liquids or gases are used but are normally conﬁ ned in closed containers or closed systems.
Class of chemical compounds that bind to CB1 & CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Of over 480 different compounds present in the plant, only around 66 are termed cannabinoids.
Weak acids that partially dissociate to release hydrogen ions. They are negatively charged and abbreviated as RCOOH. It contains a carboxyl group in which R refers to the rest of the molecule. Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include amino acids and acetic acid.
One of at least 85 active cannabinoids identiﬁ ed in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. CBD is considered to have a wider scope of medical applications than THC.
A brand of diatomaceous earth speciﬁcally calcined and otherwise treated to be a ﬁlter aid.
The separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapour (as in gas chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at different rates.
A chromatography column is a device used in chromatography for the separation of chemical compounds. It contains the stationary phase which allows the mobile phase to pass through it. They are used in both gas and liquid chromatography.
A device that condenses all vapours except the permanent gases into a liquid or solid. The most common objective is to prevent vapours that are released during evaporation from entering a vacuum pump where they would condense and contaminate it.
A vessel that collects target compounds after extraction has occurred and the solvent has evaporated. After the solvent has extracted the target compounds from the plant material in a closed-loop extractor, the solution is then transferred to the collection vessel. Here it separates from the target compounds through evaporation.
CRUDE – Normally means rough cut, unprocessed or barely winterized extract, processed from the cheapest bulk trim available. Alternatively, crude can be shorthand for any extract that hasn’t been processed heavily and is intended to be distilled.
For cannabis extraction, “Cryo” is any temperature lower than the common -40 where celsius and fahrenheit are the same.
The natural or artiﬁcial process where a solid forms and in that solid the molecules have a highly organized structure. Typically a mixture of compound A and impurity B are fully dissolved in a solvent that is hot such that it is supersaturated with A. The solvent is then cooled so that A precipitates out of solution in the form of crystals.
Crystals or trichomes are part of the marijuana plant that holds the most THC and are speciﬁcally used to make concentrates such as kief or hash. Typically when looking at marijuana buds, the more crystals you see, the more potent the product.
Exposure of the cannabinoids to extremely hot temperatures, thus removing the acidic component of the compound and converting it into a more desired cannabinoid.
Often used to describe pure THC acid (THCA) crystalline, as well as THCA crystalline that was developed in the presence of a terpene-rich solution.
A positive displacement pump that uses a combination of reciprocating action together with a ﬂapper valve or a ball valve to transfer liquids. This pump is sometimes referred to as a membrane pump.
A positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of rubber, thermoplastic or teﬂon diaphragm and suitable valves on either side of the diaphragm to pump a ﬂuid.
A runny, translucent oil devoid of the waxes or undesirable compounds from the original plant. Distillate is desirable due to its potency and versatility. It can be used to dab, vaporize, and as an ingredient in edibles, topicals and other products. Distillate concentrates are achieved through an extensive reﬁnement process that separates compounds found in the cannabis plant.
The process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture.
The removal of any residual solvent from crystallized product.
DRY SCROLL PUMP
Dry scroll pumps are oil-free with low ultimate pressures, power consumption, vibration and noise.
Also referred to as optical isomers, they are a special type of stereo-isomers. They cannot be superimposable.
ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM (ECS)
The system of CB1 & CB2 receptors throughout the human body.
Growing or originating from within the body/organism.
Can be used as a solvent due to its ability to dissolve non-polar substances and relatively low toxicity compared to other alcohols. In organic synthesis, it serves as a versatile intermediate.
The conversion of liquid molecules into vapour molecules.
Growing or originating from outside the body/organism.
A vessel plumbed in-line between the collection vessel and the recovery pump in a closed-loop system. This vessel enables the solvent vapour to expand further, collecting solids and preventing them from entering the recovery pump.
A process that uses solvents to separate the desirable compounds of cannabis from the rest of the plant matter to produce a concentrate, often called an “extract”. There are several methods of extraction that are dependent upon the type of solvent used; including butane, propane, ethanol, and supercritical carbon dioxide.
FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR
A device used to concentrate solutions, especially with heat-sensitive components. The evaporator is a special type of heat exchanger.
The lowest temperature of a volatile material where vapours of the material will ignite when given an ignition source and oxidizer.
A narrow-necked glass container, typically conical or spherical, used in a laboratory to hold reagents or samples.
Compounds in plants which ﬁlter out UV rays, attract pollinators, prevent diseases and give them their pigmentation. There are about twenty ﬂavonoids in cannabis.
The separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions according to their boiling points. Chemical compounds are separated by heating them to a temperature (often under vacuum) at which one or more fractions of the mixture will vaporize, leaving heavier compounds behind.
Finely porous glass through which gas or liquid may pass. A disc or pane of fritted glass is used to ﬁlter out solid particles, precipitate, or residue from a ﬂuid, similar to a piece of ﬁlter paper.
The means through which air or another non-condensing gas is admitted into a vacuum pump. The use of a gas ballast slightly increases the attainable low pressure of a vacuum pump. Consequently, gas ballast vacuum pumps have a base pressure speciﬁed with and without a gas ballast.
GCMS (Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry)
GCMS is an analytical method that combines the features of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Widely applied in labs as a relatively innocuous non-polar solvent.
Used to separate compound A with impurity B with some insoluble C. The solvent is heated and then ﬁltered through the compounds. The entire glassware apparatus is usually heated and it is in best practices that ﬁltration and recrystallization are separate steps.
One of the more popular extraction methods using solvents such as butane or propane.
Herbal distillates, also known as ﬂoral waters, hydrosols, hydrolates, herbal waters and essential waters. They are aqueous products of hydrodistillation. They are also colloidal suspensions of essential oils as well as water-soluble components obtained by steam distillation and hydrodistillation from plants or herbs.
When two compounds do not mix well together.
Installation that adheres to the manufacturer’s approved speciﬁcation, while also taking the recommendations of the supplier of the equipment are suitably considered.
An isomer of butane.
Molecules that have the same chemical formula but different structural arrangements. Therefore, they have different chemical and physical properties.
The -OH grouping is attached to the centre carbon (CH3)2CHOH.
Used to lubricate joints. Ground glass joints and stopcocks should never be used when dry.
Used for securing ground glassware joints to avoid breakage or spilling
Speciﬁcally designed paper ﬁber cleaning wipes that can be used for cleaning laboratory equipment and instruments. They are ideal as they produce little to no lint when cleaning laboratory equipment.
LAB FILTERS (FAST, MEDIUM, SLOW)
A semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air ﬂ ow. They are used to separate ﬁ ne substances from liquids or air or to remove solids from liquids.
Ions or molecules that bind to metal cations usually forming a complex ion.
LIPIDS AND FATS
Naturally occurring substances found within the cannabis plant. Lipids and fats are often removed during dewaxing.
Also known as solvent extraction and partitioning. A method to separate compounds based on their relative solubility in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and organic solvent. (typically hydrocarbon).
Used for pesticide remediation, typically via chromatography.
A cylindrical pressure chamber on a hydrocarbon or C02 extraction machine. This chamber is ﬁlled with the plant material that contains the target compounds to be extracted in the process.
A chemical-resistant fabric bag, used as a ﬁlter cartridge for loading and unloading material from the material column.
Small molecules with varying functions including fuel, structure, signalling effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own, defence and interaction with other organisms.
Simplest alcohol CH3OH.
Equal to 1mm divided by 1000. 1um= 1m/1000000. One thousand microns is equal to one millimeter of mercury, or 1 Torr. (1 micron = 1 milliTorr)
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to room temperature liquids, but can also apply to solids and gases. Water and ethanol are miscible as they mix in all proportions with one another.
In liquid chromatography, it is a suitable liquid solvent or mixture of solvents. In gas chromatography, it is a gas or mixture of gases.
A type of short-path distillation, characterized by an extremely low vacuum pressure, generally below 0.01 Torr. Distance from heated surface to the cooler condensing surface must be less than the mean free path (MFP), as determined by the vacuum pressure.
A material with pores of uniform size. These pore diameters are similar in size to small molecules, and thus large molecules cannot enter or be absorbed while small molecules can. AS a mixture of molecules migrate through the sieve (or matrix) the components of highest molecular weight leave the bed ﬁrst, followed by the smaller molecules.
The solvent that remains after crystallization, this contains THC, CBN, CBC, CBG and CBD.
When two or more solvents are used.
Semi-solid extracts composed of a resin in solution and in oil. It is obtained by evaporation of the solvent(s) used for their production.
An extremely hazardous extraction technique where solvent is evaporated into the atmosphere, rather than recovered and reused.
A series of tests which ensure that equipment and its subsystems will operate within their speciﬁ ed limits consistently and dependably.
Using temperature as the primary means of condensing solvent in a solvent tank. This is used in lue of a recovery pump. This process is typically performed using a chiller or dry ice.
Establishing conﬁdence through appropriate testing that the ﬁnished product or process meets all release requirements. These requirements should be for functionality and safety, with procedures that are effective and reproducible.
A diagram representing the limits of stability of the various phases in a chemical system at equilibrium. Variables such a composition and temperature must be considered.
The transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase/state of matter to another by heat transfer. The term is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous state of matter, in rare cases plasma.
A robust thermal conductivity gauge used for the measurement of the pressures in vacuum systems.
Contains the target compounds for extraction such as essential oils.
Essential oils contained in plant material. Typically including cannabinoids, terpenes, plant lipids and wax.
A separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to differences in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.
A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chieﬂy or entirely of similar units bonded together, ie. many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins.
The process of joining a large number of small molecules to make very large molecules. The single basic unit is called a monomer and linked together to form polymers.
The process where a solid forms and in that solid the molecules have no organized structure. Normally precipitate is amorphous in structure. The chemical used to form the precipitate is called the precipitant.
Directly involved in normal growth, development and reproduction.
A set of conditions for operating an extraction or reﬁnement process. They typically include temperature, pressure, ﬂow, volume, material grade and time.
A gas STP, but compressible to a transportable liquid. Propane extractions run at higher pressures, stripping different ratios of plant waxes and oils different from butane.
A chemical substance that changes brain function and thereby results in alterations of perception, mood or consciousness.
Polytetraﬂuoroethylene is a synthetic ﬂuoropolymer of tetraﬂuoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best-known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teﬂon by Chemours.
Refers to the process used to remove any residual solvents. It involves using a vacuum to heat the product at less than atmospheric pressure. The molecules will heat and release the gas. Once the pressure is turned down, the gas will release.
A vessel or stage which makes two or more substances react chemically with each other.
Pump that compresses vaporized solvent into the solvent tank, drawing the vapour from the collection vessel.
A technique used to further purify substances. Substance is re-dissolved and saturated into solvent and then allowed to crystallize out of the cold solution. Usually the slower the cooling rate is, the larger the crystals form.
A rotary vane pump is a positive displacement pump that consists of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates inside a cavity.
ROTARY-VANE VACUUM PUMP
An oil-sealed rotary displacement pump. The pumping system consists of a housing, an eccentrically installed rotor, vanes and move radially under centrifugal/resilient forces and the inlet and outlet.
RSO (Rick Simpson Oil)
Rick Simpson Oil is a type of concentrated cannabis oil. It features high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. RSO features enough THC in combination with low CBD to make the user experience a psycho-active experience when used.
A cannabis extract with a sticky, liquid consistency. Sauce extractions contain high levels of terpenes and are typically the most ﬂavourful of extracts. Sauce is typically produced using a closed-loop system, allowing the resulting solution to settle under various pressures and temperatures.
Not directly involved in normal growth, development and reproduction.
Crystallization sometimes requires an additional step. This “seeding” can be provided by scratching the glass walls with a glass rod or by placing a crystal of the product (a seed) into the solution.
The ratio of the desired product formed to the undesired product formed.
A term used to describe a type of butane hash oil. It typically looks like honey with varying degrees of transparency and colour proﬁles. When this type of concentrate is warm, it has a consistency similar to honey. When it is cold, it is similar to glass. It will shatter if it is dropped or tapped, hence the name “shatter”.
An amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregularity-dimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. These atoms feature nanometer-scale voids and pores.
A procedure by which two liquids with different boiling points can be separated. Can be used effectively to separate liquids that have at least 20 degrees difference in boiling points, as long as the mixture does not form an azeotrope.
SINGLE SOLVENT RECRYSTALLIZATION
Only one solvent used in the recrystallization process.
Solvent is allowed to slowly evaporate and the solution slowly becomes super-saturated and starts to crystallize out.
Solubility is the property of solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance (called a solute) to dissolve in a solid liquid or gaseous solvent. Temperature is one of several inﬂuential factors.
A vessel that contains solvent for the extraction process.
An apparatus for measuring the intensity of speciﬁ c wavelengths of light, especially as transmitted or adsorbed by particular substances, often in a solution.
A form of steel containing chromium, resistant to tarnishing and rust.
In paper chromatography, the stationary phase is a very uniform absorbent paper.
Isomers that have the same chemical formula, same structure but different spatial arrangements of atoms and bonds.
A chemical process where a solid turns into a gas without going through a liquid stage. Dry ice for example sublimates.
When a solvent holds more solute than it should under normal conditions. For example, hot water can dissolve more sugar than cold water.
Solid particles dispersed throughout a ﬂuid.
When performing an extraction or separation process, the goal is to separate or isolate valuable compounds. Process parameters can be adjusted to better separate or isolate valuable compounds from less desirable ones.
These are any various isomeric hydrocarbons found present in essential oils, resins and balsams. Terpenes are of the most abundant natural family of compounds of which there are up to 20,000 known types. Terpenes are most often associated with ﬂavour proﬁ le.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the principal psychoactive constituent or cannabinoid of cannabis. In other words, it is the active ingredient in marijuana that gets one high.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in live and raw cannabis.
A thermoelectric device for measuring temperature. It consists of two wires of different metals connected at two points with a voltage being developed between the two junctions in proportion to the temperature difference.
Cannabis tinctures are alcohol-extracted cannabis products. The cannabis liquid tincture contains high levels of cannabinoids and THC that have been leached out into alcohol to form a liquid.
Distillation performed under reduced pressure. This technique separates compounds based on boiling points. It is used when the STP boiling point of the compound is overly high and/or will cause the compound to thermally decompose or oxidize in air.
A tool used to dry out marijuana after harvesting. This is done to ensure a higher quality product with less potential for mold or mildew. A vacuum drying oven is recommended for delicate drying processes. In cannabis processing, vacuum ovens are also used to strip concentrates of residual solvents before they are put on the market. It uses a combination of heat and negative pressure that ends up stripping the concentrated material of any residual solvents that were used in the extraction process.
VACUUM PUMP OIL
Vacuum pump oil serves as a mechanical lubricant and a medium for trapping gas molecules. It is chemically stable, unreactive to most gases/materials and has a low vapour pressure.
A rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump. This results in a low-pressure environment within the vessel, commonly referred to as a vacuum.
A substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature. This means the vapour can be condensed into a liquid by increasing the pressure on it without reducing the temperature.
A synthetic rubber and ﬂuoropolymer elastomer commonly used in O-rings, chemical resistant gloves and other molded or extruded goods.
The process of cleaning precipitate or crystals with solvent to remove impurities. Cold solvent is used so that the crystals do not dissolve. A good wash can replace re-crystallization.
Wax is a form of cannabis concentrate. It is a thick, oily substance. Cannabis wax is exceptionally potent and contains 75-90% THC levels.
Also known as alcohol wash, it is done after the initial extraction procedure. This procedure can use C02, nitrogen, butane or other solvents. All these lead to a separation of cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant and produce minimal unwanted substances.
The ratio of the desired product formed to the total amount that could have been made (if conversion of limiting reactant was 100% and no side reactions occurred).